ATTEMPTS TO IMPEDE EROSION

4.1 Man-made Attempts
Although coastal erosion is caused naturally, it is exacerbated by man-made structures (often times these structures were initially built to mitigate coastal erosion and it's negative effects)
Examples of such, are as follows:

Example #1. Dams:
Dams are initially constructed by governments to impede flooding and store water or they can also be constructed by property owners to “subdue” the sea, and limit loss of sand. However, dams actually induce faster and greater erosion as they stop sediments from being passed from rivers to oceans; sediments that are collected by rivers aren’t able to be brought to the ocean and therefore the sediments stored aren’t able to replenish beaches that have lost sand. Beaches thus begin to disappear further due to a lack of sand transport.

Example #2 Groins: Groins are hydrloic structures or structures hat are partially submerged by water. Groins are meant to limit the sediment movement (slow down erosion) by making little "groins" that submerge out of the water.
external image groins3.jpgA group of groins in Pizzo Calabro, Southern Italy.

Example #3 Seawalls:
Seawalls constructed to interfere with erosion, have resulted in greater erosion, as sand is cast back and creates turbulence which leads to greater and faster erosion.

Example #4 Navigation Channels:
Navigation channels intersect barrier islands and thus disturb sediment transport along the island, which results in erosion in certain areas, and beach growth with a lack of erosion in other areas.

Example #5 Destruction of Coastal Vegetation: Mangrove
Not only do mangroves have an ecological vitality, mangroves play an important role in societal economics in various regions of the world . Regardless of their proliferating and fundamental eminence, the destruction of mangrove forestation and swamps perseveres in various parts of the world due to a variety of economic and political motives [1]. Mangroves are destroyed for the production of jetties and for a fundamental source of income through means of: firewood, timber, fuel, pulpwood, medicines, a reattainment of land/property, aquaculture, etc. [2]

Example #6 Breakwaters:
Breakwaters are man made "long piles of rocks" meant to "break" water before it hits the shore, but they have been found to be ineffective and treacherous.

external image breakwater.jpg
Breakwaters, change the course of waves when they hit the beach, as shown in the above photo.